When mountaineers evaluate shoe sole thickness, they often prioritize either comfort or ground feel. However, there is a general opinion that hiking shoes and boots with thicker soles are more appropriate for long-distance hiking.
While there are several studies analyzed the effect of sole thickness on runners’ performance, the literature still lacks a study on how the shoes’ height stack affects the overall stamina of hikers who adventure on longer trails.
In this case study, our primary objectives are to examine the impact of hiking shoe sole thickness on hikers’ stamina. Specifically, we aim to:
- Determine if there is a significant difference in energy expenditure between hikers wearing thick-soled and thin-soled hiking shoes.
- Investigate whether the choice of shoe sole thickness influences the duration of hikes taken by hikers.
- Assess the impact of shoe sole thickness on hikers’ subjective fatigue levels.
With more than 60 million people adventuring on the trails in 2022 only in the US (Statista, 2022), we hope that our findings will contribute to the practical knowledge of hikers, helping them choose hiking footwear that maintains stamina and reduces fatigue .
The fieldwork for this research was diligently carried out by our colleague, Catalin, who collected valuable data from the trails.
Catalin’s efforts in gathering real-world data were pivotal to the success of this study.
Subsequently, the rest of the team focused on meticulous analysis and writing of the findings to present you with this informative case study.
We hypothesize that thicker-soled hiking shoes, like the Merrell Moab 3 Mid and Salomon X Ultra 4 Mid GTX, enhance hiker stamina by reducing foot fatigue and energy expenditure during extended hikes.
The current study embraces various studies to build a coherent understanding of the effect of hiking shoes’ sole thickness on hikers’ stamina.
Initially, the study by Ramanathan et al. (2011) sets forth the argument that the thickness of a shoe’s sole has an explicit effect on lower limb muscle activity with emphasis on peroneus longus muscle.
Accordingly, footwear with thicker soles prompts a stronger protective eversion response but also puts wearers at a greater risk of lateral ligament injuries when the protective response is overwhelmed .
Complementing these findings, Law et al. (2018) noted that midsole thickness significantly alters the biomechanics of running. Shoes with thinner midsoles induced greater vertical loading rates and decreased contact time compared to shoes with thicker midsoles .
Hence, this poses a consideration: could these dynamics also be at play in hiking, and if so, how do different sole thicknesses affect the stamina of hikers?
In a similar vein to the previous studies we mentioned, Ahn (2020), while discussing the impact of sole thickness on recovery from an unexpected slip, underlines that thicker soles destabilize balance at the initiation of the recovery step, consequently augmenting the risk of falls .
This understanding is important, given that maintaining balance is fundamental for stamina conservation in hiking.
Nevertheless, counteracting these insights, Spencer (2020) states findings that observed differences in the gait cycle with the use of different shoe types.
These might reverse the effects of sole thickness on stamina, suggesting that the implications of sole thickness may depend on specific shoes’ construct .
Heidenfelder et al. also highlight that systematically amending crash-pad thickness, which indirectly modifies effective sole thickness, actually lessens the impact shock in running shoes.
This holds implications for stamina conservation in hiking, indicating that a higher stack height in shoes contributes to energy conservation during physical activities .
Our study involved 22 hikers who exhibited diversity in terms of age, gender, hiking experience, and health conditions. The hikers’ ages ranged from 23 to 45 years, ensuring a broad age representation, and both males and females were well-represented in the sample.
Hiking experience varied, with participants having between 1 and 12 years of experience. Additionally, some hikers had underlying health conditions, including asthma, allergies, diabetes, and high blood pressure.
Sample of Shoes Tested
The shoes tested in this study were divided into two categories:
- Merrell Moab 3 Mid
- Salomon X Ultra 4 Mid GTX
- Xero Shoes Xcursion Fusion
- Vivobarefoot Tracker Forest Esc
These shoe models were chosen for their popularity among hikers, distinct differences in sole thickness, and to ensure a controlled comparison in the study.
- Trail Selection: The tests were carried out on the Jepii Mari Trail in Busteni, Romania. This 12-kilometer trail (return) was chosen for its varied terrain, encompassing rocky paths, elevation changes, meadows, forested areas, scree fields, and exposed sections. These diverse conditions provided a rigorous test for each type of shoe.
- Timing: Tests were conducted between August and October, during favorable weather conditions for hiking activities.
Description of the Hiking Tests Performed
The hiking tests were designed to simulate real-world hiking conditions. They featured:
- Trail Diversity: The 12-kilometer trail (up and return) included rocky paths, elevation changes, meadows, forested areas, scree fields, and exposed sections, mirroring the challenges hikers may encounter.
- Morning Start: Tests began each morning to minimize the impact of fatigue from daily activities.
- Progress Monitoring: The trail had markers every kilometer to track hiker progression.
- Terrain Variations: The tests incorporated sections with both gradual and steep elevation changes, allowing assessment of shoe performance during uphill and downhill conditions.
- Data Collection: Each hiker was equipped with wearable energy expenditure monitors and distance tracking devices linked to the Strava smartphone app, enabling real-time data collection. Hike duration was also recorded using the app’s timer.
- Fatigue Assessment: After each hike, participants rated their fatigue levels on a scale of 1-10.
The collected data underwent rigorous statistical analysis to draw meaningful conclusions. This analysis included:
- Performance Metrics: We calculated average energy expenditure, hike duration, and fatigue levels associated with each shoe type.
- Variability Assessment: Standard deviations were computed to assess the variability in hikers’ responses to different shoe types.
- Statistical Tests: A t-test was conducted using Excel to compare the performance metrics between thick-soled and thin-soled shoes. The significance level (α) was set at 0.05 to determine the statistical significance of the results.
- Ensuring Reliability: All tests and measures were performed while maintaining the consistency of the hiking trail, weather conditions, and rest periods for each hiker to ensure reliable results.
Discussion on Shoes
- Models: The thick-soled shoes, Merrell Moab 3 Mid and Salomon X Ultra 4 Mid GTX, featured significantly taller heel stack heights (31.5 – 31.7 mm) and forefoot stack heights (20.5 mm), resulting in an approximate 11-11.5 mm heel-to-forefoot drop.
- Benefits: This design offers potential benefits, such as improved cushioning and support during hikes.
- Models: The thin-soled shoes, Xero Shoes Xcursion Fusion and Vivobarefoot Tracker Forest Esc have a significantly smaller heel and forefoot stack height, measuring 6.5 mm and 10 mm respectively, causing a ‘zero-drop’ from heel to forefoot.
- Benefits: This design encourages a more natural stride but may lack cushioning over rugged terrain.
Model Selection: The choice of these specific models was based on their popularity among hikers, distinct differences in sole thickness, and the need for a controlled comparison in the study.
Table 1: Footwear Features
|Model||Heel stack height (mm)||Forefoot stack height (mm)||Drop (mm)||Average Shoe Weight|
|Merrell Moab 3 Mid||31.7||20.5||11.5||2 lbs. 4 oz.|
|Salomon X Ultra 4 Mid GTX||31.5||20.5||11||1 lb. 14.4 oz.|
|Xero Shoes Xcursion Fusion||11.5||11.5||0||1 lb. 10 oz.|
|Vivobarefoot Tracker Forest Esc||10||10||0||1 lb. 3.4 oz.|
Table 2: Average Energy Expenditure, Duration, and Fatigue
|Model||Average Energy Expended (kcal)||Average Duration (hours)||Average Fatigue (1-10)|
|Merrell Moab 3 Mid||1.24||3.56||6.43|
|Salomon X Ultra 4 Mid GTX||1.21||3.50||6.29|
|Xero Shoes Xcursion Fusion||1.48||4.31||7.67|
|Vivobarefoot Tracker Forest Esc||1.52||4.42||8.43|
Figure 1: Average Energy Expenditure, Duration, and Fatigue Chart
Table 3: Statistical Analysis through T-tests
|Energy Comparison||1,91974E-34||Significant Difference|
|Duration Comparison||6,29851E-36||Significant Difference|
|Fatigue Comparison||1,73711E-22||Significant Difference
The statistical analysis of our data yielded noteworthy insights into the impact of sole thickness on hiker performance.
- The highly significant difference in energy expenditure (p-value: 1.92e-34) suggests that thick-soled shoes (Merrell Moab 3 Mid and Salomon X Ultra 4 Mid GTX) reduce the energy hikers expend during their journeys. This aligns with our hypothesis that greater cushioning leads to improved stamina.
- A similarly significant difference (p-value: 6.30e-36) in hike durations indicates that thick-soled shoes are associated with shorter hikes. This supports the idea that these shoes contribute to more efficient hiking.
- The substantial difference in fatigue levels (p-value: 1.74e-22) suggests that hikers wearing different shoe types experience varying levels of fatigue. Thick-soled shoes are linked to lower fatigue, reinforcing their potential benefits for stamina preservation.
In summary, our study demonstrates a clear link between hiking shoe sole thickness and hiker stamina. The key findings are as follows:
- Energy Efficiency: Thick-soled shoes (Merrell Moab 3 Mid WP and Salomon X Ultra 4 Mid GTX) significantly reduce energy expenditure, indicating their potential to enhance energy conservation during hikes.
- Shorter Duration: Hikers wearing thick-soled shoes completed hikes in notably shorter durations, further supporting the efficiency of these shoes.
- Reduced Fatigue: Thick-soled shoes were associated with lower levels of fatigue, highlighting their role in reducing the physical toll of extended hikes.
These findings underscore the practical importance of choosing the right footwear for hiking. For hikers planning longer journeys, opting for thicker-soled shoes could lead to improved stamina and reduced fatigue.
It’s worth noting that this study had a limited sample size, and further research on a larger scale would provide more definitive conclusions.
Future investigations could delve into additional factors, such as fitness level, load carried, and terrain type, to provide a more comprehensive understanding of hiker performance.
In conclusion, our study contributes valuable insights into the relationship between shoe sole thickness and hiker stamina, emphasizing the need for thoughtful footwear selection for outdoor enthusiasts.
For more statistics and analysis, see Incredible Hiking Statistics and Facts
- Statista. (2023, October 11). Hiking participation in the U.S. 2010-2022. https://www.statista.com/statistics/191240/participants-in-hiking-in-the-us-since-2006/
- Ramanathan, A. K., Parish, E., Arnold, G., Drew, T., Wang, W., & Abboud, R. (2011). The influence of shoe sole’s varying thickness on lower limb muscle activity. Foot and Ankle Surgery, 17(4), 218–223. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fas.2010.07.003
- Law, M. H., Choi, E., Law, S. H., Chan, S. S., Wong, S. M., Ching, E., Chan, Z. Y. S., Zhang, J. H., Lam, W., Lau, F. O., & Cheung, R. T. (2018). Effects of footwear midsole thickness on running biomechanics. Journal of Sports Sciences, 37(9), 1004–1010. https://doi.org/10.1080/02640414.2018.1538066
- Ahn, J. (2020). Effects of Sole Thickness on Recovery from an Unexpected Slip during Standing. ScholarWorks @ Georgia State University. https://scholarworks.gsu.edu/kin_health_theses/8/
- Spencer, S. (2020). Biomechanical effects of shoe gear on the lower extremity. Clinics in Podiatric Medicine and Surgery, 37(1), 91–99. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cpm.2019.08.008
- Heidenfelder, J., Sterzing, T., & Milani, T. L. (2010). Systematically modified crash-pad reduces impact shock in running shoes. Footwear Science, 2(2), 85–91. https://doi.org/10.1080/19424281003781543
Table 4: Sample Information
(Table displaying detailed information about the participants, including age, gender, hiking experience, and health conditions)
|Participant||Age||Gender||Hiking Experience (Years)||Health Conditions|
|Hiker 9||38||Male||9||High Blood Pressure|
Table 5: Hiking Test Data
(Table containing data on hiking test results, including energy expenditure, duration, and fatigue levels for each shoe type)
|Hiker||Shoe Type||Energy Expended (cal)||Duration (hours)||Fatigue (1-10)|
|1||Merrell Moab 3 Mid||1270.00||3.65||6|
|1||Salomon X Ultra 4 Mid GTX||1245.22||3.58||6|
|1||Xero Shoes Xcursion Fusion||1520.00||4.40||8|
|1||Vivobarefoot Tracker Forest Esc||1565.22||4.53||8|
|2||Merrell Moab 3 Mid||1165.22||3.35||6|
|2||Salomon X Ultra 4 Mid GTX||1142.61||3.28||6|
|2||Xero Shoes Xcursion Fusion||1405.22||4.08||7|
|2||Vivobarefoot Tracker Forest Esc||1442.61||4.20||8|
|3||Merrell Moab 3 Mid||1304.35||3.75||7|
|3||Salomon X Ultra 4 Mid GTX||1279.57||3.68||7|
|3||Xero Shoes Xcursion Fusion||1579.57||4.55||8|
|3||Vivobarefoot Tracker Forest Esc||1613.04||4.67||9|
|4||Merrell Moab 3 Mid||1226.09||3.52||6|
|4||Salomon X Ultra 4 Mid GTX||1204.35||3.46||6|
|4||Xero Shoes Xcursion Fusion||1489.57||4.31||7|
|4||Vivobarefoot Tracker Forest Esc||1520.87||4.40||8|
|5||Merrell Moab 3 Mid||1357.39||3.90||7|
|5||Salomon X Ultra 4 Mid GTX||1330.43||3.83||7|
|5||Xero Shoes Xcursion Fusion||1630.43||4.66||8|
|5||Vivobarefoot Tracker Forest Esc||1667.83||4.77||9|
|6||Merrell Moab 3 Mid||1252.17||3.60||7|
|6||Salomon X Ultra 4 Mid GTX||1231.30||3.54||6|
|6||Xero Shoes Xcursion Fusion||1515.65||4.36||8|
|6||Vivobarefoot Tracker Forest Esc||1547.83||4.47||8|
|7||Merrell Moab 3 Mid||1165.22||3.35||6|
|7||Salomon X Ultra 4 Mid GTX||1142.61||3.28||6|
|7||Xero Shoes Xcursion Fusion||1405.22||4.08||7|
|7||Vivobarefoot Tracker Forest Esc||1442.61||4.20||8|
|8||Merrell Moab 3 Mid||1200.87||3.45||6|
|8||Salomon X Ultra 4 Mid GTX||1180.00||3.40||6|
|8||Xero Shoes Xcursion Fusion||1440.00||4.16||7|
|8||Vivobarefoot Tracker Forest Esc||1473.91||4.27||7|
|9||Merrell Moab 3 Mid||1287.83||3.70||6|
|9||Salomon X Ultra 4 Mid GTX||1264.35||3.64||7|
|9||Xero Shoes Xcursion Fusion||1564.35||4.49||8|
|9||Vivobarefoot Tracker Forest Esc||1600.87||4.61||8|
|10||Merrell Moab 3 Mid||1165.22||3.35||6|
|10||Salomon X Ultra 4 Mid GTX||1142.61||3.28||6|
|10||Xero Shoes Xcursion Fusion||1405.22||4.08||7|
|10||Vivobarefoot Tracker Forest Esc||1442.61||4.20||8|
|11||Merrell Moab 3 Mid||1330.43||3.83||7|
|11||Salomon X Ultra 4 Mid GTX||1304.35||3.75||7|
|11||Xero Shoes Xcursion Fusion||1604.35||4.62||8|
|11||Vivobarefoot Tracker Forest Esc||1637.39||4.73||9|
|12||Merrell Moab 3 Mid||1217.39||3.51||7|
|12||Salomon X Ultra 4 Mid GTX||1196.52||3.45||6|
|12||Xero Shoes Xcursion Fusion||1460.87||4.19||8|
|12||Vivobarefoot Tracker Forest Esc||1491.30||4.30||8|
|13||Merrell Moab 3 Mid||1260.87||3.62||7|
|13||Salomon X Ultra 4 Mid GTX||1240.00||3.56||7|
|13||Xero Shoes Xcursion Fusion||1515.65||4.36||8|
|13||Vivobarefoot Tracker Forest Esc||1547.83||4.47||8|
|14||Merrell Moab 3 Mid||1231.30||3.54||6|
|14||Salomon X Ultra 4 Mid GTX||1210.43||3.48||6|
|14||Xero Shoes Xcursion Fusion||1475.65||4.23||7|
|14||Vivobarefoot Tracker Forest Esc||1506.09||4.34||8|
|15||Merrell Moab 3 Mid||1295.65||3.72||7|
|15||Salomon X Ultra 4 Mid GTX||1270.87||3.65||7|
|15||Xero Shoes Xcursion Fusion||1570.87||4.52||8|
|15||Vivobarefoot Tracker Forest Esc||1605.22||4.64||8|
|16||Merrell Moab 3 Mid||1204.35||3.46||6|
|16||Salomon X Ultra 4 Mid GTX||1184.35||3.40||6|
|16||Xero Shoes Xcursion Fusion||1447.83||4.17||8|
|16||Vivobarefoot Tracker Forest Esc||1480.87||4.29||8|
|17||Merrell Moab 3 Mid||1313.04||3.79||7|
|17||Salomon X Ultra 4 Mid GTX||1287.83||3.70||7|
|17||Xero Shoes Xcursion Fusion||1587.83||4.54||8|
|17||Vivobarefoot Tracker Forest Esc||1622.61||4.66||9|
|18||Merrell Moab 3 Mid||1226.09||3.52||7|
|18||Salomon X Ultra 4 Mid GTX||1205.22||3.46||6|
|18||Xero Shoes Xcursion Fusion||1470.43||4.22||8|
|18||Vivobarefoot Tracker Forest Esc||1501.74||4.33||8|
|19||Merrell Moab 3 Mid||1280.87||3.68||7|
|19||Salomon X Ultra 4 Mid GTX||1256.09||3.60||6|
|19||Xero Shoes Xcursion Fusion||1556.09||4.47||8|
|19||Vivobarefoot Tracker Forest Esc||1589.57||4.58||8|
|20||Merrell Moab 3 Mid||1186.96||3.42||6|
|20||Salomon X Ultra 4 Mid GTX||1166.09||3.36||6|
|20||Xero Shoes Xcursion Fusion||1430.43||4.12||8|
|20||Vivobarefoot Tracker Forest Esc||1463.48||4.24||8|
|21||Merrell Moab 3 Mid||1328.70||3.82||7|
|21||Salomon X Ultra 4 Mid GTX||1301.74||3.74||7|
|21||Xero Shoes Xcursion Fusion||1601.74||4.58||8|
|21||Vivobarefoot Tracker Forest Esc||1636.52||4.70||9|
|22||Merrell Moab 3 Mid||1200.87||3.45||7|
|22||Salomon X Ultra 4 Mid GTX||1178.26||3.38||7|
|22||Xero Shoes Xcursion Fusion||1441.74||4.16||9|
|22||Vivobarefoot Tracker Forest Esc||1474.78||4.27||9|
Table 6: T-tests
(Table summarizing the results of the t-tests, including p-values and statistical significance)
|Thick-Soled Shoes||Thick-Soled Shoes||Thick-Soled Shoes||Thick-Soled Shoes||Thick-Soled Shoes||Thin-Soled Shoes||Thin-Soled Shoes||Thin-Soled Shoes||Thin-Soled Shoes||Thin-Soled Shoes|
|Hiker||Shoe Type||Energy Expended (cal)||Duration (hours)||Fatigue (1-10)||Hiker||Shoe Type||Energy Expended (cal)||Duration (hours)||Fatigue (1-10)|
|1||Merrell Moab 3 Mid||1270||3.65||6||1||Xero Shoes Xcursion Fusion||1,520.00||4.4||8|
|1||Salomon X Ultra 4 Mid GTX||1245.22||3.58||6||1||Vivobarefoot Tracker Forest Esc||1,565.22||4.53||8|
|2||Merrell Moab 3 Mid||1,165.22||3.35||6||2||Xero Shoes Xcursion Fusion||1,405.22||4.08||7|
|2||Salomon X Ultra 4 Mid GTX||1,142.61||3.28||6||2||Vivobarefoot Tracker Forest Esc||1,442.61||4.2||8|
|3||Merrell Moab 3 Mid||1,304.35||3.75||7||3||Xero Shoes Xcursion Fusion||1,579.57||4.55||8|
|3||Salomon X Ultra 4 Mid GTX||1,279.57||3.68||7||3||Vivobarefoot Tracker Forest Esc||1,613.04||4.67||9|
|4||Merrell Moab 3 Mid||1,226.09||3.52||6||4||Xero Shoes Xcursion Fusion||1,489.57||4.31||7|
|4||Salomon X Ultra 4 Mid GTX||1,204.35||3.46||6||4||Vivobarefoot Tracker Forest Esc||1,520.87||4.4||8|
|5||Merrell Moab 3 Mid||1,357.39||3.9||7||5||Xero Shoes Xcursion Fusion||1,630.43||4.66||8|
|5||Salomon X Ultra 4 Mid GTX||1,330.43||3.83||7||5||Vivobarefoot Tracker Forest Esc||1,667.83||4.77||9|
|6||Merrell Moab 3 Mid||1,252.17||3.6||7||6||Xero Shoes Xcursion Fusion||1,515.65||4.36||8|
|6||Salomon X Ultra 4 Mid GTX||1,231.30||3.54||6||6||Vivobarefoot Tracker Forest Esc||1,547.83||4.47||8|
|7||Merrell Moab 3 Mid||1,165.22||3.35||6||7||Xero Shoes Xcursion Fusion||1,405.22||4.08||7|
|7||Salomon X Ultra 4 Mid GTX||1,142.61||3.28||6||7||Vivobarefoot Tracker Forest Esc||1,442.61||4.2||8|
|8||Merrell Moab 3 Mid||1,200.87||3.45||6||8||Xero Shoes Xcursion Fusion||1,440.00||4.16||7|
|8||Salomon X Ultra 4 Mid GTX||1,180.00||3.4||6||8||Vivobarefoot Tracker Forest Esc||1,473.91||4.27||7|
|9||Merrell Moab 3 Mid||1,287.83||3.7||6||9||Xero Shoes Xcursion Fusion||1,564.35||4.49||8|
|9||Salomon X Ultra 4 Mid GTX||1,264.35||3.64||7||9||Vivobarefoot Tracker Forest Esc||1,600.87||4.61||8|
|10||Merrell Moab 3 Mid||1,165.22||3.35||6||10||Xero Shoes Xcursion Fusion||1,405.22||4.08||7|
|10||Salomon X Ultra 4 Mid GTX||1,142.61||3.28||6||10||Vivobarefoot Tracker Forest Esc||1,442.61||4.2||8|
|11||Merrell Moab 3 Mid||1,330.43||3.83||7||11||Xero Shoes Xcursion Fusion||1,604.35||4.62||8|
|11||Salomon X Ultra 4 Mid GTX||1,304.35||3.75||7||11||Vivobarefoot Tracker Forest Esc||1,637.39||4.73||9|
|12||Merrell Moab 3 Mid||1,217.39||3.51||7||12||Xero Shoes Xcursion Fusion||1,460.87||4.19||8|
|12||Salomon X Ultra 4 Mid GTX||1,196.52||3.45||6||12||Vivobarefoot Tracker Forest Esc||1,491.30||4.3||8|
|13||Merrell Moab 3 Mid||1,260.87||3.62||7||13||Xero Shoes Xcursion Fusion||1,515.65||4.36||8|
|13||Salomon X Ultra 4 Mid GTX||1,240.00||3.56||7||13||Vivobarefoot Tracker Forest Esc||1,547.83||4.47||8|
|14||Merrell Moab 3 Mid||1,231.30||3.54||6||14||Xero Shoes Xcursion Fusion||1,475.65||4.23||7|
|14||Salomon X Ultra 4 Mid GTX||1,210.43||3.48||6||14||Vivobarefoot Tracker Forest Esc||1,506.09||4.34||8|
|15||Merrell Moab 3 Mid||1,295.65||3.72||7||15||Xero Shoes Xcursion Fusion||1,570.87||4.52||8|
|15||Salomon X Ultra 4 Mid GTX||1,270.87||3.65||7||15||Vivobarefoot Tracker Forest Esc||1,605.22||4.64||8|
|16||Merrell Moab 3 Mid||1,204.35||3.46||6||16||Xero Shoes Xcursion Fusion||1,447.83||4.17||8|
|16||Salomon X Ultra 4 Mid GTX||1,184.35||3.4||6||16||Vivobarefoot Tracker Forest Esc||1,480.87||4.29||8|
|17||Merrell Moab 3 Mid||1,313.04||3.79||7||17||Xero Shoes Xcursion Fusion||1,587.83||4.54||8|
|17||Salomon X Ultra 4 Mid GTX||1,287.83||3.7||7||17||Vivobarefoot Tracker Forest Esc||1,622.61||4.66||9|
|18||Merrell Moab 3 Mid||1,226.09||3.52||7||18||Xero Shoes Xcursion Fusion||1,470.43||4.22||8|
|18||Salomon X Ultra 4 Mid GTX||1,205.22||3.46||6||18||Vivobarefoot Tracker Forest Esc||1,501.74||4.33||8|
|19||Merrell Moab 3 Mid||1,280.87||3.68||7||19||Xero Shoes Xcursion Fusion||1,556.09||4.47||8|
|19||Salomon X Ultra 4 Mid GTX||1,256.09||3.6||6||19||Vivobarefoot Tracker Forest Esc||1,589.57||4.58||8|
|20||Merrell Moab 3 Mid||1,186.96||3.42||6||20||Xero Shoes Xcursion Fusion||1,430.43||4.12||8|
|20||Salomon X Ultra 4 Mid GTX||1,166.09||3.36||6||20||Vivobarefoot Tracker Forest Esc||1,463.48||4.24||8|
|21||Merrell Moab 3 Mid||1,328.70||3.82||7||21||Xero Shoes Xcursion Fusion||1,601.74||4.58||8|
|21||Salomon X Ultra 4 Mid GTX||1,301.74||3.74||7||21||Vivobarefoot Tracker Forest Esc||1,636.52||4.7||9|
|22||Merrell Moab 3 Mid||1,200.87||3.45||7||22||Xero Shoes Xcursion Fusion||1,441.74||4.16||9|
|22||Salomon X Ultra 4 Mid GTX||1,178.26||3.38||7||22||Vivobarefoot Tracker Forest Esc||1,474.78||4.27||9|
|T-test Energy Expenditure:||0.000000000000000000000000000000000191974112475813|